Thyroid imbalance is one of the most common problems we hear in day to day life, be it in neighbourhood, office or home. With the increasing incidence of these issues, we are compelled to look into it timely to prevent it. Improving your lifestyle, diet, exercise routine and knowing what is going in your body by getting your blood tests done on required regular basis will help go the preventive way. DocNok helps you manage your health, make you aware and educate you about the temple in which your soul resides.
Let’s see what it is all about.
Thyroid is a butterfly shaped gland, located in front of the neck below the Adam’s apple.
It is our master gland of metabolic processes and energy. Thyroid uses iodine to produce vital hormones.
Thyroid balance is required for multiple important functions in our body like to think clearly, remember things, to maintain a balanced mood, grow hair and nails, have optimal basic energy, good vision, digestion, fertility, libido, etc.
Hypothalamus in brain releases Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) which stimulates Pituitary gland to produce Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and this in turn stimulates Thyroid gland to release more T4; Thyroxine (T4) is the primary hormone produced by thyroid gland. T4 is released in blood stream and to the target organs, the rest of it is converted into Triiodothyronine (T4).
SYMPTOMS OF THYROID DISEASE TEND TO REFLECT THE GLANDS’S:-
Underactivity, Overactivity, Autoimmune activation, and, or Inflammation or Enlargement in the neck area.
Insufficient amount of thyroid hormone is produced. Might be seen in cases of Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, Thyroid hormone resistance, Postpartum thyroiditis, Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, Acute thyroiditis.
It can present with various symptoms like fatigue, hair loss, poor concentration (brain fog), dry skin, constipation, feeling cold, fluid retention, muscle and joint aches, depression, prolonged and increase in menstrual bleeding, etc.
COMPLICATIONS OF HYPOTHYROIDISM
Cardiac complications if left untreated.
Lowers kidney functions due to decreased blood flow to kidneys.
Causes nerve & muscle injury leading to breathing difficulties.
Trouble walking, talking, hoarseness in voice.
Pain in limbs.
It is caused due to excessive production of thyroid hormone. Increased metabolism is seen here. It is less common than hypothyroidism. The underlying cause might be excessive iodine consumption, Grave’s disease, Thyroid nodules, Toxic multinodular goitre, etc.
Enlargement of thyroid gland which might be due to Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism or even in people with normal thyroid function. Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) is often complained by people with enlarged thyroid gland (seen as swelling in neck apparently), hoarseness in voice.
Thyroid carcinoma is of four types; Papillary – most common, found in around 80% cases, very slow spreading, better prognosis. Follicular- 15% cases, aggressive in progression. Medullary- in about 3% cases, hereditary pattern could be seen. Anaplastic – 2% cases, its rare but most serious of the thyroid cancers.
Under Preliminary investigations for thyroid disorders, blood test (Thyroid Function Test, free) shows the level of hormones.
Thyroglobulin antibody test, Nuclear scan for Radioactive iodine uptake, MRI, Thyroid Ultrasound and FNAP (Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy) could be conducted according to the condition and requirement.
Along with oral Hormonal therapy for thyroid disorders, patient needs to be careful in her dietary habits, avoiding goitrogenic foods such as soy foods, broccoli, cauliflower, mustard seeds, millets, peanuts, etc and increase intake of citrus fruits, antioxidant rich foods, berries, Omega 3 fatty acids, hazelnuts, whole grains, etc.